Friday, November 17, 2017

Basic Documents for Researching Choctaw Freedmen

For Choctaw Freedmen, like the records of the Freedmen of the other tribes that once practiced Black chattel slavery, there are three primary records for the genealogical process to be undertaken. The records are 1) Enrollment Cards, 2) Application Jackets, and 3) The Final Rolls.

When one speaks of the Dawes Roll, or of one's ancestor having had a "roll number" it is from these records that the number is taken. 

Dawes Enrollment Cards

One hears of the Dawes records all the time, in fact many times one hears reference to the Dawes Roll. However, the roll is a list of names. It was a list of names of people eligible to receive land allotments. 

But to qualify to have one's name placed on the final roll a lengthy interview process was required. Data was first collected on a card--referred to often as an Enrollment Card. On some cards a Field card number was recorded and in other cases not. In the image below is the enrollment card of my family, my great grand parents Samuel and Sallie, my grandfather Sam Jr., my great uncle Houston, and my great aunt, Louisa.
Choctaw Freedman Card #777
The National Archives at Ft. Worth, Ft. Worth Texas 1868-1914

NAI Number: 251747
Record Group Title: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Record Group 75
(Microfilm publicaton M1186)

Because my great grandparents had been enslaved, their names were placed on a card reflecting "Freedmen" or former slaves. One can note on the card above, that Samuel's slave holder was a man called Jim Davis, and Sallie had once been enslaved by Emeline Perry.

On the reverse side of the card, as reflected in the image below, Samuel's father and mother were listed as were the parents of Sallie. In addition, where noted, the slave holder was listed. With Sallie, her father was not enslaved and he was clearly identified as having been a Choctaw Indian from the Skullyville community.
Reverse side of the same card.

Application Jackets/Applications for Enrollment

The application jackets reflect the actual interview taken when the applicants appeared. The Choctaw Nation does have a good number of interviews that were microfilmed fortunately their interview was preserved. The application jackets contain quite often, memos, letters and the final decision that was made on the application. 

Below is the first page of a 3 page interview of the for the Walton family enrollment.

National Archives Publication M1301

Applications for Enrollment
(Also accessed from, Native American Collection, Choctaw Freedmen)

Final  Dawes Roll
Many people often miss this record. It is this record that is actually the Dawes Roll. There are over 680 pages to the roll itself and it is divided by category. The categories are citizens "by blood"
"freedmen" "newborns" "minors" and "inter-married whites".

If one made it through the lengthy process, and if their names were placed upon this roll, then the applicant was eligible to apply for their designated land allotment. Every person whose name is on the roll received a land allotment.

Final Roll
National Archives Publication T529
Document accessed on National Archives Website

Land Allotment Records

When the rolls closed and it was time to officially apply for one's land allotment another process unfolded. For many this process was far less complicated than it was several years earlier for the Dawes application process.

The process was actually treated as a homestead application, and it should be understood that everyone in the family received land, even children and infants. As a result, a complete file for each family member consisted of the application, a plat map with the legal description of the land, and if the interview was lengthy, it too was in the file.

Note that in order to find an ancestor's file, one will have to use the actual roll number instead of the enrollment card number.

Below is a sample page from the land allotment for Samuel as he applied for his own land. Oklahoma and Indian Territory, Land Allotment Jackets for Five Civilized Tribes, 1884-1934[database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc, 2014.

Samuel also applied for his wife and children, and it was also good to note that he signed the applications himself, so an original signature was visible on the record. Below is a page from the application of his son, Sam Jr., my grandfather.

Source: same a for above image.

There are other resources for the researcher to explore but these are the basic records that will connect the beginning genealogy researcher to explore the basic records for descendants of Choctaw Freedmen. 

Tuesday, January 10, 2017

Legacy Gleaned from the Choctaw Census of 1867

1867 Choctaw Census Summary Oklahoma and Indian Territory, Marriage, Citizenship and Census Records, 
1841-1927 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2014.

Original data: Indian Marriage and Other Records, 1850–1920. Oklahoma Historical Society, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.

A document digitized by Ancestry reflects probably one of the earliest census records from the Choctaw Nation. I was pleased to find a document reflecting my own family history during the Post Civil War years, and have found a legacy of endurance.

A document digitized by Ancestry reflects probably one of the earliest census records from the Choctaw Nation. In 1867 an assessment was made of the various counties of the Nation, and the data is interesting to study. The counties in the nation that are reflected in this census are: San Bois, Skullyville, Sugar Loaf, Gaines, Tobucksy, Wade, Nashoba, Eagle, Boktuklo, Red River, Towson, Cedar, Jacks Fork, Atoka, Kiamichi, and Blue counties.

Looking more closely at the document the populations studied are the numbers of Indian males and females, the numbers of Choctaw Freedmen, the numbers of Freedmen from other States and Nations, and the numbers of whites. Data on acres of land being cultivated and the crops are also noted. Interesting however that Choctaw Freedmen are referred to as "Free Persons of Color" on the document. In addition the numbers of freed people of color from other states were also counted in the population.

To access this census: on Ancestry:
Oklahoma and Indian Territory

The census was conducted in December 1867, and it reflected all of the counties of the Choctaw Nation at that time. The counties reflected were: San Bois, Skullyville, Sugar Loaf, Gaines, Tobucksy, Wade, Nashoba, Eagle, Boktuklo, Red River, Towson, Cedar, Jacks Fork, Atoka, Kiamichi, and Blue.

(Source: same as above)

I decided to examine the 1867 census closely to see if I could find my own Choctaw Freedmen reflected anywhere. The item being examined is found in the Ancestry collection called:  Oklahoma and Indian Territory, Marriage, Citizenship and Census. The microfilm selected was  CTN 04 which can be accessed on Ancestry. The image number is 112.

The oldest documented ancestor that I have among my Choctaw Freedman ancestors is Kitty Perry. She was once enslaved by the Perry family, and was now freed and reflected in the record. Kitty was the grandmother to my great grandmother Sallie Walton. Among the communities captured in those early post-civil war enumerations was the Skullyville community (written as Scullyville). Surely enough, 12 pages into that particular reel of microfilm there was my ancestor Kitty. And Kitty, my third great grandmother as identified as a "Free person of color" aka Choctaw Freedman, on that document. 

Across from her name were some numbers reflecting the gender of people living in the household with her. There were two males and three females at that time. My research has already revealed the three females, Sallie, her mother Amanda, and an aunt Indiana Perry. Only one male is known from family research and that is Jackson Perry (later known as Jackson Crow). The other male is unknown so far.

Although there is not much more known about Kitty, and her life right after the war, seeing her name particularly so early after the war is encouraging. She was a survivor, and seeing her name on this early document places her back on the soil where she had lived for decades.

Understanding the trauma of war, and the uncertainty of living in such a trying time, under trying circumstances, and then seeing the family reflected in those uncertain times, is empowering. Kitty had a family to still feed and protect, and nurture. Her name on that record reflects her own determination to continue with life. Her early years are unknown, though she is believed to have arrived in the Skullyville Sugar Loaf area with the Perry's in 1831 from Yalobusha Mississippi.

In spite of the fears and heartache she may have endured in those earlier decades, Kitty survived, and raised her family. The future would continually hold challenges but she lived through them, and today her descendants live from the east coast to the west and points in between.

Seeing that small entry on a document from 1867, inspires me to keep moving ahead. The legacy of those enumerated in those critical years after the Civil War continues. And for me, when I study that first post Civil War document, and new path began, and I can say that from that one record, Kitty's legacy continues.

Sunday, January 1, 2017

Who Were The Men Along the Wall?

(Courtesy, Oklahoma Historical Society)

Many of us have seen the image above, reflecting a group of Chickasaw Freedmen appearing at a hearing in front of officials of the Dawes Commission. The group of people being interviewed are one side of the large desks and commission officials are recording data from the other side of the desks. The applicants are seated in front of the desk and in the background another group of applicants are seated in front of a second desk in front of them. But on the far right, three men, all of African descent are seated. These men are attired in suits, setting them apart from the applicants.

Who were those men? And what was their role at the hearing?

I recently realized that the men were part of a group of Chickasaw Freedmen leaders, and they had been selected at the convention in 1898 to be present when Chickasaw Freedmen appeared in front of the Dawes Commission. And the answer as to why they were there is found among the conference proceedings of the Choctaw-Chickasaw Freedmen convention held in Pickens county.

The convention was lead by a group of Freedmen leaders, whose name should be remembered for the roles they played in the communities of Chickasaw and Choctaw Freedmen. (Many of these communities are now part of the southern part of Oklahoma, today.) The meeting that unfolded in August 1898, was an impressive one, and the status of Freedmen, both Choctaw and Chickasaw were addressed, though most of the issues evolved around the status of Chickasaw Freedmen, the last of the Five Tribes once-enslaved people who remained in the Territory, without citizenship, rights, and education.

But, it would not be until I examined the proceedings of the 1898 meeting that a possible answer to the question about the men along the wall.

National Archives II Record Group 48
(Stack 150, Row 9, Compartment 15, Shelf 1
Chickasaw Nation , Indian Territory, August 4th and 5th, 1898

It was clear what their roles were at the Dawes hearing. At the 1898 convention it was resolved at that there would be a panel of elected men, "to attend the sittings of the commission to the Five Civilized Tribes while said commission shall be engaged in the enrollment of the Chickasaw Freedmen, and render all Chickasaw Freedmen applying for enrollment, and the attorneys representing them under contracts of the Chickasaw Freedmen's Association, all the assistance in their power to them and that .........(illegible).........said Commission up the roll of the Chickasaw Freedmen to be made by said commission. 

1. Charles Cohee              2. Henry Gaines
3. Mack Stevenson           4. Solomon McGilbry
            5. Nelson Eastman
                Samuel Jones    

Their names appeared clearly and legibly. They were leaders who were elected by their neighbors and constituents to be representatives for them, at the 1898 convention and to appear at the Dawes Commission hearings.

Among those who signed on one of the more significant resolutions were, Charles Cohee, Henry Gaines, Mack Stevenson, Solomon McGilbry, Samuel Jones and Nelson Eastman (name later struck from document).

However, it was also noted that a separate committee of three were also selected to have an active role at the Dawes hearings.

National Archives II Record Group 48
(Stack 150, Row 9, Compartment 15, Shelf 
                                         R E S O L U T I O N

RESOLVED that the chairman of the committee appoint a committee of three persons, whose duty it shall be to arrange terms, and to sercure tents an other necessary camping outfits to be used by the committee of enrollment while attending the sittings of the commission to the Five Civilized Tribes.

        1. Charles Cohee              2. Lee Newsberry
                                        3. Nelson Eastman


H. A. Stephenson (signed)                    Charles Cohee (signed)
Secretary of the Convention                   Chairman of the Convention

It is not clear whether any of the men whose names appear above were part of the team of the three men along the wall or not. And because there are a good number of images of Charles Cohee that have survived time, it is doubtful that he is one of the three men above. Could the three be among the other names appointed by the chairman?

Quite possibly, and it is also documented that occasionally the men did testify on behalf of the Freedmen as well, when extensive interviews were taken.

Among the more involved interviews were those in which there was a question of a blood tie to the tribe that Freedman may have had. Some were truly bi-racial having one Indian parents and one black parent. The mixed status was often treated differently with Freedmen and most, even with an Indian parent, would be placed on the "Freedman" roll, citing a convenient practice of giving status to the applicant- the same status of the mother. And since most mother's of bi-racial Freedmen were of African Ancestry, they were given "non-Indian" (aka black) status regardless.

Being put on rolls "by blood" thus guaranteeing that they would receive larger allotments of land because of a blood tie to Indians. And the irony of allotting less land to Freedmen was somehow deemed acceptable as if the African blood of their former slaves somehow merited their being treated differently, and put them and their descendants into a "lesser" status forever with the tribe.

Beyond a basic sentiment of southern anti-black racism towards the their former slaves, came the demographics. Chickasaw Freedmen, along with those Choctaw Freedmen living in their vicinity, constituted a larger number, and there was a fear of a black "domination" should Freedmen be given rights such as voting rights.

The men along the wall, however, are liklely to have been 3 of several "good men" who were elected at the convention and by the people, to speak for them, when required. Among the representatiaves and active participants in the Freedman Convention of 1898, came numerous "good men". And thankfully, we have several of their names. 

They were Charles Cohee, Lee Newsberry, Nelson Eastman, Joseph Murray, Richmond Prince, William Pickens, Robert Anderson, William Alexander, Newton Burney, Henry Clay, George Stevenson, Ben Williams, William McKinney,  Mack Stevenson, Henry Gaines, Solomon McGilbry, and H. S. Stevenson.

The men against the wall were most likely from among these "good men." The task make me in the future for descendants to come forth with evidence such as family images to identify the three good men along the wall.